The effect of orientation on the readability and comfort of 3D-printed braille

  author    = {Puerta, Eduardo and Crnovrsanin, Tarik and South, Laura and Dunne, Cody},
  booktitle = {Proc.\ CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems},
  title     = {The effect of orientation on the readability and comfort of {3D}-printed braille},
  year      = {2024},
  note      = {Preprint at \url{}. Supplemental material at \url{}.},
  series    = {CHI},
  abstract  = {Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) is a low-cost method of 3D printing that involves stacking horizontal layers of plastic. FDM is used to produce tactile graphics and interfaces for people with visual impairments. Unfortunately, the print orientation can alter the structure and quality of braille and text. The difference between printing braille vertically and horizontally has been documented. However, we found no comprehensive study of these angles or the angles in between, nor any study providing a quantitative and qualitative user evaluation. We conducted two mixed-methods studies to evaluate the performance of braille printed at different angles. We measured reading time and subjective preference and performed a thematic analysis of participants' responses. Our participants were faster using and preferred 75° and vertical braille over horizontal braille. These results provide makers with guidelines for creating models with readable 3D-printed braille.},
  doi       = {10.1145/3613904.3642719},

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